Provides detailed analysis of discrimination in legal disputes with local, state, and federal government offices. This guide contains thorough coverage of major cases and emerging legal trends, and a complete treatment of the equal protection clause. Emphasizes the evidentiary obligations of the prima facie violation and defense, together with analysis of remedies. Provides over 5,000 case citations, and an extensive collection of secondary literature, such as books, studies, law reviews, and related materials. Chapters discuss: state action, equal protection violations: the challenger's prima facie case, discrimination justifications: the defender's case, classifications, fundamental rights, federal civil rights legislation, affirmative action, and desegregation.